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发布于:2021-6-11 13:24:00  访问:20 次 回复:0 篇
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Been comprehensively reviewed elsewhere (Leidal et al., 2012; Nikitin and Luftig, 2012) and
The concomitant stabilization and Title Loaded From File activation of p53 results in G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest by inducing the CDK regulator p21WAF1 or apoptosis by inducing pro-apoptotic things such as NOXA and PUMA (Vousden and Title Loaded From File Prives, 2009; Sherr, 2012). The entire INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus appears to become coordinately regulated epigenetically by polycomb protein complexes generating repressive Title Loaded From File histone modifications (Gil and Peters, 2006; Popov and Gil, 2010).Been comprehensively reviewed elsewhere (Leidal et al., 2012; Nikitin and Luftig, 2012) and for EBV will be reconsidered below.THE INK4b-ARF-INK4a LOCUS, p16INK4a , OSR/OIS, AGING, AND CANCER Inside the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus at human chromosome 9p21, CDKN2A encodes two potent tumor suppressors, p16INK4a , and p14ARF (p19ARF in mice); these proteins are vital damaging regulators of cell proliferation.Been comprehensively reviewed elsewhere (Leidal et al., 2012; Nikitin and Luftig, 2012) and for EBV will be reconsidered below.THE INK4b-ARF-INK4a LOCUS, p16INK4a , OSR/OIS, AGING, AND CANCER Within the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus at human chromosome 9p21, CDKN2A encodes two potent tumor suppressors, p16INK4a , and p14ARF (p19ARF in mice); these proteins are important adverse regulators of cell proliferation. Though the CDK inhibitor p15INK4b has about 85 amino acid similarity to p16INK4a and biochemically behaves in substantially exactly the same way, in most mammalian cells ?for unknown reasons ?it has distinct functions. In contrast towards the CDK inhibitors, the p14 and p19 ARF proteins regulate the stability of p53 by inactivating MDM2 ?a p53-specific ubiquitin ligase that facilitates p53 degradation. The concomitant stabilization and activation of p53 results in G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest by inducing the CDK regulator p21WAF1 or apoptosis by inducing pro-apoptotic elements like NOXA and PUMA (Vousden and Prives, 2009; Sherr, 2012). The items of CDKN2A can for that reason be crucial mediators of OSR and potent barriers to the"immortalization"of cells in culture as well as the improvement of cancers in vivo. Both p16INK4a and ARF are also progressively up-regulated with tissue aging, when they in all probability contribute towards the aging method by minimizing reservoirs of stem cells capable of self-renewal (Kim and Sharpless, 2006; Collado et al., 2007). There‘s common agreement that p19ARF plays the additional vital function in all these processes in mice, whereas in human cells p16INK4a would be the dominant player. It really is therefore not surprising that within a wide variety of human cancers INK4a is inactivated by gene deletion, mutation, or promoter DNA methylation (Gil and Peters, 2006; Kim and Sharpless, 2006; Popov and Gil, 2010). The whole INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus seems to be coordinately regulated epigenetically by polycomb protein complexes producing repressive histone modifications (Gil and Peters, 2006; Popov and Gil, 2010). Even though induction of p16INK4A inFIGURE 2 | Epitope-tagged EBNA3C associates together with the promoter for BIM and genes within the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus. Schematic representations of (A) around 9kb on the BCL2L11 (BIM) promoter and (B) about 40 kb like the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus. Vertical arrows indicate the positions where EBNA3C has been detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses employing lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) established using EBV expressing an epitope-tagged EBNA3C.
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